DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH
Direct Speech (kalimat langsung) adalah kalimat yang diucapkan langsung dari si pembicara. Kalimat itu tidak diubah ataupun ditambah.
Indirect Speech (kalimat tidak langsung) adalah kalimat yang menceritakan apa yang dikatakan si pembicara dan dapat diceritakan kembali dengan cara lain, tetapi tidak mengubah artinya.
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Dalam Kalimat Perintah
He said: “Go away!”
Mother said: “Wash your face!”
Teacher said: “Don’t be lazy!” He told us to go away.
Mother told me to wash my face.
The teacher said not to be lazy.
Jika Verb dalam waktu sekarang , tidak ada perubahan waktu
He says: “I am ill”
He asks them: “Are you sleepy?”
He has told us: “I am late” He says that he is ill.
He asks them whether they are sleepy.
He has told us that he is late.
# Jikalau Verb dalam waktu lampau / lampau selesai, perubahannya al:
Simple Present Menjadi Simple Past
He told me: “I go to school everyday” He told me that he went to school everyday
Present Continuous Menjadi Past Continuous
He told me: “I am studying English now” He told me that he was studying English then.
Present Perfect Menjadi Past Perfect
He told me: “I have bought a book” He told me that he had bought a book.
Present Perfect Continuous Menjadi Past Perfect Continuous
He told me: “I have been working at He told me that he had been working at SMK
Simple Past Menjadi Past Perfect
He told me: “I went to Jakarta yesterday” He told me that he had gone to Jakarta the day before.
Past Continuous Menjadi Past Perfect Continuous
He told me: “I was studying chemistry” He told me that he had studied chemistry.
Simple Future Menjadi Future Past
He told me: “I shall go to Comal tomorrow” He told me that he would go to Comal the following day.
Future Past Menjadi Future Past Perfect
He told me: I should go there if I were you” He told me that he would have gone there if he had been me.
The Change of Time Signal:
Now Then Here There
Yesterday The day before This That
Last night The night before These Those
Two days ago Two days before Can Could
Today That day Shall Should
Tomorrow The following day Will Would
Next week The following week May Might
Next month The following month
NB: Must dalam bentuk Present berubah menjadi had to.
Must dalam bentuk Future berubah menjadi would have to.
Dalam kalimat larangan, musn’t berubah menjadi musn’t / wasn’t to.